Basic requirements for safety of the hottest machi

2022-08-05
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Basic requirements for mechanical safety

1. sufficient anti-destructive loading and unloading capacity, good reliability and adaptability to the environment

(1) reasonable mechanical structure type. The structural type of mechanical equipment must be appropriate to its intended function, and no obstacles, jams or looseness during normal operation of machinery due to unreasonable structural design shall be allowed; The microcomputer data shall not be lost or crashed due to the defects of components or software; No predictable events related to unreasonable design of mechanical equipment shall occur

(2) sufficient resistance to damage. The stressed components and their connections of the machinery shall meet the sufficient strength, stiffness and component stability to complete the predetermined maximum load, and shall not break or fatigue damage, excessive deformation or collapse due to stress or the number of working cycles during normal operation; On this premise, the overall anti overturning or wind and anti sliding stability of mechanical equipment must also be considered, especially those machines with expected load or uneven mass distribution and those that can run on track or road surface. It shall be ensured that they will not overturn under the method of transportation and analysis of iron content in lubricating oil, operation, vibration or external force, so as to prevent undue displacement due to out of control operation

(3) have enough adaptability to the use environment. The mechanical equipment must have sufficient adaptability to its use environment (such as temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind load, rain and snow, vibration, load, static electricity, magnetic field and electric field, radiation, dust, microorganism, animal, corrosive medium, etc.), especially the ability to resist corrosion or cavitation, aging wear and interference, so as not to cause temporary or permanent failure of control system parts due to insulation damage of electrical components, or physical Accidents caused by chemical and biological effects

(4) improve the reliability of machinery. Reliability refers to the ability of a machine or its parts to perform specified functions without failure under specified service conditions and within a specified period of time. The traditional mechanical design is only designed according to the performance index of the product, while the reliability design should not only ensure the performance index, but also ensure the reliability index of the product, that is, the fault-free, durability, maintainability, availability and economy of the product. Reliability is a performance that reflects the durability and reliability of the product, which is directly related to safety

2. do not produce harmful substances that exceed the standard

(1) toxic and harmful substances. Materials and substances that are harmless to people shall be used (including various materials of the machinery itself, processing raw materials, intermediate or final products, additives, lubricants, cleaning agents, and products and wastes that react with the working medium or environmental medium). For inevitable toxic substances (such as dust, toxic substances, radiation, radioactivity, corrosion, etc.), measures such as sealing, discharge (or absorption), isolation, purification, etc. shall be taken into account in the design. In places where personnel are reasonably exposed, the composition and concentration shall be lower than the provisions of the product safety and health standards, and shall not constitute harmful effects on human health, nor cause pollution to the environment

(2) prevent physical hazards. The noise, vibration, overheat, low temperature and other indicators produced by machinery must be controlled below the allowable indicators specified in the safety standards for positive products of the generator, so as to prevent psychological and physiological harm to people

(3) fire and explosion prevention. Mechanical production equipment with combustible gas, liquid, steam, dust or other flammable, explosive or pyrogenic substances shall be designed to prevent escape, emission, dripping and leakage, and shall be equipped with monitoring alarm, explosion-proof pressure relief devices and fire safety facilities according to specific conditions to avoid or eliminate friction impact, electric spark and static electricity accumulation, so as to prevent the resulting fire or explosion hazards

3. reliable and effective safety protection

any machinery has risks of one kind or another. When the mechanical equipment is put into use, the production object (all kinds of materials) and environmental conditions will be more dangerous when the time to reach the fracture duration is measured by lasting experiment and the operator is in dynamic combination. As long as there is danger, even if the operator has received good technical training and safety education and has perfect procedures, the risk of mechanical injury accidents cannot be completely avoided. Therefore, a reliable material barrier must be established, that is, one or more protective devices, safety devices or other safety measures specially used to protect human safety shall be configured on the machinery. In case of problems in some links of equipment or operation, various safety technical measures of the machinery shall be taken to avoid accidents and ensure the safety of personnel and equipment. Production equipment with high risk or high accident rate must be equipped with safety protection devices before leaving the factory

4. fulfill the requirements of safety ergonomics

man machine interface refers to the interface where people and machines exchange information and interact on the machine. The display device, control (manipulation) device, man's working space, position and working environment are the centralized embodiment of man-machine requirements. They shall meet the anthropometric parameters, the structural and functional characteristics of the human body, physiological and psychological conditions, and meet the health requirements. Its purpose is to ensure that people can work safely, accurately, efficiently and comfortably, reduce errors and avoid danger

5. safety of maintenance

(1) maintainability of machinery. After the machine breaks down, it can be maintained or restored to its pre-determined functional state under the specified conditions by performing maintenance according to the specified procedures or means, which is the maintainability of the machine. The failure of the equipment will cause the loss of the intended function of the machine and bring losses to the work, and the dangerous failure will also cause accidents. In this sense, to solve the dangerous fault and restore the safety function is to eliminate the potential safety hazard

(2) safety of maintenance operation. The safety of personnel shall be ensured when the maintenance is carried out according to the specified procedures. As maintenance is a special operation different from normal operation, some unconventional methods are often adopted, such as removing protective devices or making safety devices inoperative. In order to avoid or reduce maintenance injury accidents, the maintenance operation mode shall be set in the control system; From the perspective of inspection and maintenance, consider the accessibility of internal parts in the structural design; If necessary, special inspection and maintenance tools or devices shall be provided along with the equipment; For heavy parts, the design of convenient hoisting shall also be considered

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